Promises A+ and Q

Two years ago I published a blog post about jQuery promises I have got lot of feedback since then but even if this still valid for jQuery I want to drag focus to the great job some of the javascript gurus are doing.

The important specification here is Promises A+


The specification is very short, readable and useful. Go read it. It specify the interface for a Promise despite how it is created.

There are several frameworks and libraries that follow this specification and this is a GOOD thing, because it means that you can pass a promise from some library to other one and everyone speak the same interface.

So, what's a promise again?

A promise represents a value that may not be available yet.

There is another definition I heard that I like a lot:

A promise is an asynchronous value.

If you have done any javascript you know that when you need to call an asynchronous function you have to pass a callback which is a function that will be called after it finish doing its job. So, the function doesn't return anything and this make it harder to compose asynchronous code sometimes.

The Q library

Q is a library that implements the standard and has some extra helpers. Q works in the browse and in node.js.

From now on, I will use Q to show some examples, but keep in mind that the very basic things are part of the Promise/A+ and Q adds some friendly helpers on top of that.

Basic usage

In this first example I have called Q.delay(2000) this method returns a promise that will be fulfilled after two seconds. You can think of this method as a setTimeout that instead of having callback parameter it returns a promise.

Every promise has a then method that receive two arguments (or two callbacks) in order to access the fulfilled value and rejected value. Either callbacks could be null or undef.


then returns a new promise, this allow Promises A+ to be chained

In this example I'm returning a value in the first then/onfulfilled function this makes the returned promise to be fulfilled with that value ( section in spec).

Because this is something you do a lot, Q promises have a helper thenResolve:

The most interesting thing about chaining promises is that you can serialize work:

In this example we first get the user with getUser and then we get his tweets getTweets. The result of then(getTweets) becomes a new promise that will be fullfiled when the two things are fulfilled and it will be fulfilled with tweets.

Can you read that thing "getUser then getTweets then forEach tweet alert tweet message"? This is important. We are working with asynchronous code in javascript yet the code is still very readable and easy to compose.


At this point we have used only the promise returned from the delay method. Another way to create promises is using Q.defer. A Defer has two important methods resolve and reject, and it has a property promise. It goes without saying that this is not part of the specification and different frameworks might have different ways to create deferred.

The delay method in Q could be implemented with defer as follows:

At the point I'm writing this jQuery promises are not compatible with Promises/A and Promises/A+, so an easy way to fix this is as follows:

Despite the specification doesn't work with jQuery Promises, the Q implementation does in a straightforward way:


You can wrap a jQuery promise with Q to convert it to Promise/A+.


What if you need to do several asynchronous tasks that doens't depend on each other? Use Q.all.

Q.all converts an array of promises into a single promise that will be fulfilled when all the promises are fulfilled with an array of all the values or rejected with the first reason a promise is rejected.

in this example I'm calling getUsers three time for the three ids I have in the array. Then I wait the three promises to be fulfilled (this will happen after 1s aprox.) and then I show a message.

A more complex example here:

In this case the spread method (from Q- not standard) works like then but "spread" all the values in arguments thus we can give the mergeProfiles function directly.

Error throwing and handling in asynchronous code

Another interesting thing about promises is error handling. In node.js land it happens a lot that you end with a code like this:

doFoo(function (err, r1) {
  if (err) return handleError(err);

  doBar(r1, function (err, r2) {
    if (err) return handleError(err);

    doBaz(r2, function (err, r3) {
      if (err) return handleError(err);



I want you to notice this line three times:

if (err) return handleError(err)

With promises you can write this same code as follows:

  .then(null, handleError);

Because the two first then calls doesn't have a onreject handler they will pass the rejection reason to the next promise until someone handles that error. More interesting if a promise is rejected none of the fulfill handlers here will be called.

The other interesting thing about this is that if you throw an exception inside a then call the promise will be rejected.


node.js api and modules follow a convention for asynchronous code, functions usually have callback parameter as the very last parameter and this callback get called with error and value.

So, Q make it easy to convert this style to promises as follows:

var Q = require('q');
var readdir = Q.nfbind(require('fs').readdir);

  .then(function (files) {

  }, function (err) {


This nfbind method has an alias denodeify.

There are lot more helpers but the other one interesting is nodeify. Do you feel shame letting the world know that you use promises and want to expose an standard-old node.js api? Use nodeify:

module.exports = function (callback) {


This is not that important but it is something I found and I like a lot. When writing unit tests against asynchronous code, typically you do something like this:

function test (done) {
  getSomething(function (err, result) {
    if (err) return done(err);
    Assert.areEqual(result, 123);

As I cited before "promises are asynchronous values". What if the assert and test framework could handle promises as well? You could easily write something like this:

function test () {
  return getSomething().should.eventually.equal(123);

This is already done and you can use it today, have a look to chai-as-promised.

More material

Watch this video:

Follow @domenic.

Read his blogpost.

Q Api Reference is very helpful.


Promises are the future (of JavaScript asynchronous code). I put JavaScript there because I am sure some people are working on better languages with better syntax for asynchronous flows but that doesn't feel is going to change in the short term for javascript.

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